Communication over Fiber Optics with hands-on laboratory - TRAINING


Course Objectives

The advent of telegraphy in the 1830s replaced the use of light by electricity and began the era of electrical communications. The bit rate B could be increased to ∼ 10 b/s by the use of new coding techniques, such as the Morse code. The use of intermediate relay stations allowed communication over long distances (∼ 1000 km). Indeed, the first successful transatlantic telegraph cable went into operation in 1866. Telegraphy used essentially a digital scheme through two electrical pulses of different durations (dots and dashes of the Morse code). The invention of the telephone in 1876 brought a major change inasmuch as electric signals were transmitted in analog form through a continuously varying electric current. Analog electrical techniques were to dominate communication systems for a century or so.
The development of worldwide telephone networks during the twentieth century led to many advances in the design of electrical communication systems. The use of coaxial cables in place of wire pairs increased system capacity considerably. The first coaxial-cable system, put into service in 1940, was a 3-MHz system capable of transmitting 300 voice channels or a single television channel. The bandwidth of such systems is limited by the frequency-dependent cable losses, which increase rapidly for frequencies beyond 10 MHz. This limitation led to the development of microwave communication systems in which an electromagnetic carrier wave with frequencies in the range of 1–10 GHz is used to transmit the signal by using suitable modulation techniques.
The first microwave system operating at the carrier frequency of 4 GHz was put into service in 1948. Since then, both coaxial and microwave systems have evolved considerably and are able to operate at bit rates ∼100 Mb/s. The most advanced coaxial system was put into service in 1975 and operated at a bit rate of 274 Mb/s. A severe drawback of such high-speed coaxial systems is their small repeater spacing (∼1 km), which makes the system relatively expensive to operate. Microwave communication systems generally allow for a larger repeater spacing, but their bit rate is also limited by the carrier frequency of such waves. A commonly used figure of merit for communication systems is the bit rate–distance product, BL, where B is the bit rate and L is the repeater spacing. Figure 1.2 shows how the BL product has increased through technological advances during the last century and a half. Communication systems with BL ∼ 100 (Mb/s)-km were available by 1970 and were limited to such values because of fundamental limitations.
It was realized during the second half of the twentieth century that an increase of several orders of magnitude in the BL product would be possible if optical waves were used as the carrier. However, neither a coherent optical source nor a suitable transmission medium was available during the 1950s. The invention of the laser and its demonstration in 1960 solved the first problem . Attention was then focused on finding ways for using laser light for optical communications. Many ideas were advanced during the 1960s , the most noteworthy being the idea of light confinement using a sequence of gas lenses .
It was suggested in 1966 that optical fibers might be the best choice, as they are capable of guiding the light in a manner similar to the guiding of electrons in copper wires. The main problem was the high losses of optical fibers—fibers available during the 1960s had losses in excess of 1000 dB/km. A breakthrough occurred in 1970 when fiber losses could be reduced to below 20 dB/km in the wavelength region near 1 m. At about the same time, GaAs semiconductor lasers, operating continuously at room temperature, were demonstrated . The simultaneous availability of compact optical sources and a low-loss optical fibers led to a worldwide effort for developing fiber-optic communication systems . Figure 1.3 shows the increase in the capacity of lightwave systems realized after 1980 through several generations of development. As seen there, the commercial deployment of lightwave systems followed the research and development phase closely. The progress has indeed been rapid as evident from an increase in the bit rate by a factor of 100,000 over a period of less than 25 years. Transmission distances have also increased from 10 to 10,000 km over the same time period. As a result, the bit rate–distance product of modern lightwave systems can exceed by a factor of 107 compared with the first-generation lightwave systems.

Course Summary and Details

Since the publication of the first experiment of fiber optics in 1992, the state of the art of fiber-optic communication systems has advanced dramatically despite the relatively short period of only 10 years.
For example, the highest capacity of commercial fiber-optic links available in 1992 was only 2.5 Gb/s. A mere 4 years later, the wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) systems with the total capacity of 40 Gb/s became available commercially. By 2001, the capacity of commercial WDM systems exceeded 1.6 Tb/s, and the prospect of lightwave systems operating at 3.2 Tb/s or more were in sight. During the last 2 years, the capacity of transoceanic lightwave systems installed worldwide has exploded. Moreover, several other undersea networks were in the construction phase in December 2001.
A global network covering 250,000 km with a capacity of 2.56 Tb/s (64 WDM channels at 10 Gb/s over 4 fiber pairs) is scheduled to be operational in 2002. Several conference papers presented in 2001 have demonstrated that lightwave systems operating at a bit rate of more than 10 Tb/s are within reach. Just a few years ago it was unimaginable that lightwave systems would approach the capacity of even 1 Tb/s by 2001.
Later on, in 1997. It has been well received by the scientific community involved with lightwave technology. Because of the rapid advances that have occurred over the last 5 years, the publisher and I deemed it necessary to bring out the advanced fiber optics were to continue to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date account of fiber-optic communication systems. The result is the course in your hands. The primary objective of the course remains the same.
The emphasis is on the physical understanding, but the engineering aspects are also discussed throughout this course. Because of the large amount of material that needed to be added to provide comprehensive coverage, the course size has increased considerably compared with the first course back in the year 2000.
Although all chapters have been updated, the major changes have occurred in The second half.
The first half provides the basic foundation while the second half covers the issues related to the design of advanced lightwave systems. More specifically, after the introduction of the elementary concepts in day-1 and day-2 devoted to the three primary components of a fiber-optic communications—optical fibers, optical transmitters, and optical receivers.
Day-3 then focuses on the system design issues. In day-3 Chapters are devoted to the advanced techniques used for the management of fiber losses and chromatic dispersion, respectively. Day-4 focuses on the use of wavelength- and time-division multiplexing techniques for optical networks. Code-division multiplexing is also a part of this chapter. The use of optical solitons for fiber-optic systems is discussed in day-4 as well. Coherent lightwave systems are now covered in the last chapter. More than 30% of the material in day-3 and day-4 is new because of the rapid development of the WDM technology over the last 5 years. The contents of the course reflect the state of the art of lightwave transmission systems in 2001.
The primary role of this course is as a high-level course in the field of optical communications. An attempt is made to include as much recent material as possible so that participants are exposed to the recent advances in this exciting field. The course can also serve as a reference text for engineers already engaged in or wishing to enter the field of optical fiber communications. The reference list at the end of each course is more elaborate than what is common for a typical course. The listing of recent research papers should be useful for researchers using this course as a reference. At the same time, participants can benefit from it if they are assigned problems requiring reading of the original research papers. A set of problems is included at the end of each session to help both the instructor and the participant. Although written primarily for graduate engineers, the course can also be used for a fresh graduated engineer course at the senior level with an appropriate selection of topics.
Parts of the course can be used for several other related courses.
A communication system transmits information from one place to another, whether separated by a few kilometers or by transoceanic distances. Information is often carried by an electromagnetic carrier wave whose frequency can vary from a few megahertz to several hundred terahertz. Optical communication systems use high carrier frequencies (∼100 THz) in the visible or near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. They are sometimes called lightwave systems to distinguish them from microwave systems, whose carrier frequency is typically smaller by five orders of magnitude (1 GHz). Fiber-optic communication systems are lightwave systems that employ optical fibers for information transmission. Such systems have been deployed worldwide since 1980 and have indeed revolutionized the technology behind telecommunications. Indeed, the lightwave technology, together with microelectronics, is believed to be a major factor in the advent of the “information age.” The objective of this course is to describe fiber-optic communication systems in a comprehensive manner.
The emphasis is on the fundamental aspects, but the engineering issues are also discussed. The purpose of this introductory chapter is to present the basic concepts and to provide the background material. Day-1 gives a historical perspective on the development of optical communication systems. In Day-2 and Day-3 we cover concepts such as analog and digital signals, channel multiplexing, and modulation formats. Relative merits of guided and unguided optical communication systems are discussed in day-4. The last day focuses on the building blocks of a fiber-optic communication system.

Communication over Fiber Optics with hands-on laboratory Training Course - OUTLINES


Introduction

• Historical Perspective
• Need for Fiber-Optic Communications
• Evolution of Lightwave Systems
• Basic Concepts
• Analog and Digital Signals
• Channel Multiplexing
• Modulation Formats
• Optical Communication Systems
• Lightwave System Components
• Optical Fibers as a Communication Channel
• Optical Transmitters Optical Receivers

Optical Fibers

• Geometrical-Optics Description
• Step-Index Fibers
• Graded-Index Fibers
• Wave Propagation
• Maxwell’s Equations
• Fiber Modes
• Single-Mode Fibers
• Dispersion in Single-Mode Fibers
• Group-Velocity Dispersion
• Material Dispersion
• Waveguide Dispersion
• Higher-Order Dispersion
• Polarization-Mode Dispersion
• Dispersion-Induced Limitations
• Basic Propagation Equation
• Chirped Gaussian Pulses
• Limitations on the Bit Rate
• Fiber Bandwidth
• Fiber Losses
• Attenuation Coefficient
• Material Absorption
• Rayleigh Scattering
• Waveguide Imperfections
• Nonlinear Optical Effects
• Stimulated Light Scattering
• Nonlinear Phase Modulation
• Four-Wave Mixing
• Fiber Manufacturing
• Design Issues
• Fabrication Methods
• Cables and Connectors

Optical Transmitters

• Basic Concepts
• Emission and Absorption Rates
• p–n Junctions
• Nonradiative Recombination
• Semiconductor Materials
• Light-Emitting Diodes
• Power–Current Characteristics
• LED Spectrum
• Modulation Response
• LED Structures
• Semiconductor Lasers
• Optical Gain
• Feedback and Laser Threshold
• Laser Structures
• Control of Longitudinal Modes
• Distributed Feedback Lasers
• Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers
• Tunable Semiconductor Lasers
• Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers
• Laser Characteristics
• CW Characteristics
• Small-Signal Modulation
• Large-Signal Modulation
• Relative Intensity Noise
• Spectral Linewidth
• Transmitter Design
• Source–Fiber Coupling
• Driving Circuitry
• Optical Modulators
• Optoelectronic Integration
• Reliability and Packaging

Optical Receivers

• Basic Concepts
• Detector Responsivity
• Rise Time and Bandwidth
• Common Photodetectors
• p–n Photodiodes
• p–i–n Photodiodes
• Avalanche Photodiodes
• MSM Photodetectors
• Receiver Design
• Front End
• Linear Channel
• Decision Circuit
• Integrated Receivers
• Receiver Noise
• Noise Mechanisms
• p–i–n Receivers
• APD Receivers
• Receiver Sensitivity
• Bit-Error Rate
• Minimum Received Power
• Quantum Limit of Photodetection
• Sensitivity Degradation
• Extinction Ratio
• Intensity Noise
• Timing Jitter
• Receiver Performance

Lightwave Systems

• System Architectures
• Point-to-Point Links
• Distribution Networks
• Local-Area Networks
• Design Guidelines
• Loss-Limited Lightwave Systems
• Dispersion-Limited Lightwave Systems
• Power Budget
• Rise-Time Budget
• Long-Haul Systems
• Performance-Limiting Factors
• Terrestrial Lightwave Systems
• Undersea Lightwave Systems
• Sources of Power Penalty
• Modal Noise
• Dispersive Pulse Broadening
• Mode-Partition Noise
• Frequency Chirping
• Reflection Feedback and Noise
• Computer-Aided Design

Optical Amplifiers

• Basic Concepts
• Gain Spectrum and Bandwidth
• Gain Saturation
• Amplifier Noise
• Amplifier Applications
• Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers
• Amplifier Design
• Amplifier Characteristics
• Pulse Amplification
• System Applications
• Raman Amplifiers
• Raman Gain and Bandwidth
• Amplifier Characteristics
• Amplifier Performance
• Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers
• Pumping Requirements
• Gain Spectrum
• Simple Theory
• Amplifier Noise
• Multichannel Amplification
• Distributed-Gain Amplifiers
• System Applications
• Optical Preamplification
• Noise Accumulation in Long-Haul Systems
• ASE-Induced Timing Jitter
• Accumulated Dispersive and Nonlinear Effects
• WDM-Related Impairments

Dispersion Management

• Need for Dispersion Management
• Precompensation Schemes
• Prechirp Technique
• Novel Coding Techniques
• Nonlinear Prechirp Techniques
• Postcompensation Techniques
• Dispersion-Compensating Fibers
• Optical Filters
• Fiber Bragg Gratings
• Uniform-Period Gratings
• Chirped Fiber Gratings
• Chirped Mode Couplers
• Optical Phase Conjugation
• Principle of Operation
• Compensation of Self-Phase Modulation
• Phase-Conjugated Signal
• Long-Haul Lightwave Systems
• Periodic Dispersion Maps
• Simple Theory
• Intrachannel Nonlinear Effects
• High-Capacity Systems
• Broadband Dispersion Compensation
• Tunable Dispersion Compensation
• Higher-Order Dispersion Management
• PMD Compensation

Multichannel Systems

• WDM Lightwave Systems
• High-Capacity Point-to-Point Links
• Wide-Area and Metro-Area Networks
• Multiple-Access WDM Networks
• WDM Components
• Tunable Optical Filters
• Multiplexers and Demultiplexers
• Add–Drop Multiplexers
• Star Couplers
• Wavelength Routers
• Optical Cross-Connects
• Wavelength Converters
• WDM Transmitters and Receivers
• System Performance Issues
• Heterowavelength Linear Crosstalk
• Homowavelength Linear Crosstalk
• Nonlinear Raman Crosstalk
• Stimulated Brillouin Scattering
• Cross-Phase Modulation
• Four-Wave Mixing
• Other Design Issues
• Time-Division Multiplexing
• Channel Multiplexing
• Channel Demultiplexing
• System Performance
• Subcarrier Multiplexing
• Analog SCM Systems
• Digital SCM Systems
• Multiwavelength SCM Systems
• Code-Division Multiplexing
• Direct-Sequence Encoding
• Spectral Encoding

Soliton Systems

• Fiber Solitons
• Nonlinear Schr¨odinger Equation
• Bright Solitons
• Dark Solitons
• Soliton-Based Communications
• Information Transmission with Solitons
• Soliton Interaction
• Frequency Chirp
• Soliton Transmitters
• Loss-Managed Solitons
• Loss-Induced Soliton Broadening
• Lumped Amplification
• Distributed Amplification
• Experimental Progress
• Dispersion-Managed Solitons
• Dispersion-Decreasing Fibers
• Periodic Dispersion Maps
• Design Issues
• Impact of Amplifier Noise
• Moment Method
• Energy and Frequency Fluctuations
• Timing Jitter
• Control of Timing Jitter
• High-Speed Soliton Systems
• System Design Issues
• Soliton Interaction
• Impact of Higher-Order Effects
• Timing Jitter
• WDM Soliton Systems
• Interchannel Collisions
• Effect of Lumped Amplification
• Timing Jitter
• Dispersion Management

Coherent Lightwave Systems

• Basic Concepts
• Local Oscillator
• Homodyne Detection
• Heterodyne Detection
• Signal-to-Noise Ratio
• Modulation Formats
• ASK Format
• PSK Format
• FSK Format
• Demodulation Schemes
• Heterodyne Synchronous Demodulation
• Heterodyne Asynchronous Demodulation
• Bit-Error Rate
• Synchronous ASK Receivers
• Synchronous PSK Receivers
• Synchronous FSK Receivers
• Asynchronous ASK Receivers
• Asynchronous FSK Receivers
• Asynchronous DPSK Receivers
• Sensitivity Degradation
• Phase Noise
• Intensity Noise
• Polarization Mismatch
• Fiber Dispersion
• Other Limiting Factors
• System Performance
• Asynchronous Heterodyne Systems
• Synchronous Heterodyne Systems
• Homodyne Systems
• Current Status

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