IPv6 in Modern Networks - TRAINING

Who Should Attend This Course

This course is intended for the following audiences:
■■ Windows networking consultants and planners This group includes anyone who will be planning for an eventual IPv6 migration with Windows.
■■ Microsoft Windows network administrators This group includes anyone who manages an IPv4-based network and wants to gain technical knowledge about IPv6 and its implementation in Windows.
■■ Microsoft Certified Systems Engineers (MCSEs) and Microsoft Certified Trainers (MCTs) Regardless of the eventual IPv6 content for Microsoft Official Curriculum (MOC) courseware for Windows Server, this course can be a standard reference for MCSEs and MCTs for IPv6 technology.
■■ General technical staff Because this course is mostly about IPv6 protocols and processes, independent of its implementation in Windows Server, general technical staff can use this course as an in-depth primer on IPv6 technologies.
■■ Information technology participants This course originated as courseware for internal Microsoft software developers, testers, and program managers; thus it retains its capability as a course for IPv6 courses taught at an organization or educational institution, using Windows as the example IPv6 implementation.

Contents at a Glance

• Introduction to IPv6
• IPv6 Protocol for Windows
• IPv6 Addressing
• The IPv6 Header
• ICMPv6
• Neighbor Discovery
• Multicast Listener Discovery and MLD Version 2
• Address Autoconfiguration
• IPv6 and Name Resolution
• IPv6 Routing
• IPv6 Transition Technologies
• 6to4
• Teredo
• NAT 64/DNS64
• IPv6 Security Considerations
• DirectAccess
• Deploying IPv6 on an Intranet
• IPv6 on the Microsoft Corporate Network
• IPv6 RFC Index
• Testing for Understanding Answers
• Setting Up an IPv6 Test Lab
• IPv6 Reference Tables
• Link-Layer Support for IPv6
• Windows Sockets Changes for IPv6
• Mobile IPv6
• Teredo Protocol Processes

Course Summary and Details

Due to the following recent events, the importance of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) to the future of the Internet and organization intranets is now without question:
■■ On February 3, 2011, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) joined the Number Resources Organization (NRO), the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), and the Internet Society to announce that the pool of public Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Internet addresses has now been completely allocated. Public IPv4 address space still exists to be assigned to organizations by regional address authorities, but there is no more public IPv4 address space in reserve.
■■ On June 8, 2011, Microsoft and other members of the Internet Society (ISOC) participated in World IPv6 Day to temporarily test connectivity and performance issues with dual-stack (IPv4 and IPv6) Internet properties.
■■ In April of 2012, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) published Request for Comments (RFC) 6540, “IPv6 Support Required for All IP-Capable Nodes.” This Best Current Practice RFC advises that IPv6 support be required for all network nodes, in addition to IPv4.
■■ On June 6, 2012, Microsoft and other members of the ISOC participated in World IPv6 Launch to permanently enable dual stack on Internet properties. The time has come to embrace, learn, and understand IPv6.
Pursuant to this need, this course is a straightforward discussion of the concepts, principles, and processes of IPv6 and how it is supported by the Microsoft Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista operating systems. Note that this course does not contain programming code–level details of the IPv6 protocol for these versions of Windows, such as structures, tables, buffers, or coding logic. These details are highly guarded Microsoft intellectual property that is of interest only to a relative handful of software developers. However, this course does contain details of how the Microsoft implementation of IPv6 in these versions of Windows works for described processes and how to modify default behaviors with Windows PowerShell and Netsh.exe tool commands, Group Policy settings, and registry values.
The purpose of this course is to provide an educational vehicle with which you can learn IPv6 to a fair level of technical depth—the terms, the addresses, the protocols, and the processes—to prepare you for planning, deployment, and operation of a native IPv6 infrastructure on your intranet.

What You Should Know Before Attending This Course

This course assumes a foundation of networking knowledge that includes basic networking concepts, widely used networking technologies, and sound knowledge of the TCP/ IP suite. Wherever possible, I try to facilitate the reader’s transition to IPv6 by comparing it with the corresponding feature, behavior, or component of IPv4.

IPv6 in Modern Networks - OUTLINES

Introduction to IPv6

• Limitations of IPv4
• Consequences of the Limited IPv4 Address Space
• Features of IPv6
• New Header Format
• Large Address Space
• Stateless and Stateful Address Configuration
• IPsec Header Support Required
• Better Support for Prioritized Delivery
• New Protocol for Neighboring Node Interaction
• Extensibility
• Comparison of IPv4 and IPv6
• IPv6 Terminology
• The Case for IPv6 Deployment
• IPv6 Solves the Address Depletion Problem
• IPv6 Solves the Disjoint Address Space Problem
• IPv6 Solves the International Address Allocation Problem
• IPv6 Restores End-to-End Communication
• IPv6 Uses Scoped Addresses and Address Selection
• IPv6 Has More Efficient Forwarding
• IPv6 Has Support for Security and Mobility
• Testing for Understanding

IPv6 Protocol for Windows

• Architecture of the IPv6 Protocol for Windows
• Features of the IPv6 Protocol for Windows
• Installed, Enabled, and Preferred by Default
• Basic IPv6 Stack Support
• IPv6 Stack Enhancements
• GUI and Command-Line Configuration
• Integrated IPsec Support
• Windows Firewall Support
• Temporary Addresses
• Random Interface IDs
• DNS Support
• Source and Destination Address Selection
• Support for ipv6-literal.net Names
• Literal IPv6 Addresses in URLs
• Static Routing
• IPv6 over PPP
• DHCPv6
• 6to4
• Teredo
• PortProxy
• NAT64/DNS64
• Group Policy Settings for Transition Technologies
• Application Support
• Application Programming Interfaces
• Windows Sockets
• Winsock Kernel
• Remote Procedure Call
• IP Helper
• Win32 Internet Extensions
• .NET Framework
• Windows Runtime
• Windows Filtering Platform
• Windows Management Instrumentation Version 2
• Manually Configuring the IPv6 Protocol
• Configuring IPv6 Through the Properties of Internet
• Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6)
• Configuring IPv6 with Windows PowerShell
• Configuring IPv6 with the Netsh.exe Tool
• Disabling IPv6
• IPv6-Enabled Tools
• Ipconfig
• Route
• Ping
• Tracert
• Pathping
• Netstat
• Displaying IPv6 Configuration with Windows PowerShell
• Get-NetIPInterface -AddressFamily IPv6
• Get-NetIPAddress -AddressFamily IPv6
• Get-NetRoute -AddressFamily IPv6
• Get-NetNeighbor -AddressFamily IPv6
• Displaying IPv6 Configuration with Netsh
• Netsh interface ipv6 show interface
• Netsh interface ipv6 show address
• Netsh interface ipv6 show route
• Netsh interface ipv6 show neighbors
• Netsh interface ipv6 show destinationcache
• Testing for Understanding

IPv6 Addressing

• The IPv6 Address Space
• IPv6 Address Syntax
• Compressing Zeros
• IPv6 Prefixes
• Types of IPv6 Addresses
• Unicast IPv6 Addresses
• Global Unicast Addresses
• Link-Local Addresses
• Unique Local Addresses
• Special IPv6 Addresses
• Transition Addresses
• Multicast IPv6 Addresses
• Solicited-Node Address
• Mapping IPv6 Multicast Addresses to Ethernet Addresses
• Anycast IPv6 Addresses
• Subnet-Router Anycast Address
• IPv6 Addresses for a Host
• IPv6 Addresses for a Router
• Subnetting the IPv6 Address Space
• Step 1: Determining the Number of Subnetting Bits
• Step 2: Enumerating Subnetted Address Prefixes
• IPv6 Address Allocation Strategies
• IPv6 Interface Identifiers
• EUI-64 Address-Based Interface Identifiers
• Temporary Address Interface Identifiers
• IPv4 Addresses and IPv6 Equivalents
• Testing for Understanding

The IPv6 Header

• Structure of an IPv6 Packet
• IPv4 Header
• IPv6 Header
• Values of the Next Header Field
• Comparing the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers
• IPv6 Extension Headers
• Extension Headers Order
• Hop-by-Hop Options Header
• Destination Options Header
• Routing Header
• Fragment Header
• Authentication Header
• Encapsulating Security Payload Header and Trailer
• IPv6 MTU
• Upper-Layer Checksums
• Testing for Understanding


• ICMPv6 Overview
• Types of ICMPv6 Messages
• ICMPv6 Header
• ICMPv6 Error Messages
• Destination Unreachable
• Packet Too Big
• Time Exceeded
• Parameter Problem
• ICMPv6 Informational Messages
• Echo Request
• Echo Reply
• Comparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Messages
• Path MTU Discovery
• Changes in PMTU
• Testing for Understanding

Neighbor Discovery

• Neighbor Discovery Overview
• Neighbor Discovery Message Format
• Neighbor Discovery Options
• Source and Target Link-Layer Address Options
• Prefix Information Option
• Redirected Header Option
• MTU Option
• Route Information Option
• Neighbor Discovery Messages
• Router Solicitation
• Router Advertisement
• Neighbor Solicitation
• Neighbor Advertisement
• Redirect
• Summary of Neighbor Discovery Messages and Options
• Neighbor Discovery Processes
• Conceptual Host Data Structures
• Address Resolution
• Neighbor Unreachability Detection
• Duplicate Address Detection
• Router Discovery
• Redirect Function
• Host Sending Algorithm
• IPv4 Neighbor Messages and Functions and IPv6 Equivalents
• Testing for Understanding

Link-Layer Support for IPv6

• Basic Structure of IPv6 Packets
• LAN Media
• Ethernet: Ethernet II
• Network Monitor Capture
• Ethernet: IEEE 802.3 SNAP
• IEEE 802.11
• Frame Control Field
• Token Ring: IEEE 802.5 SNAP
• WAN Media
• X.25
• Frame Relay
• ATM: Null Encapsulation
• ATM: SNAP Encapsulation
• IPv6 over IPv4

Windows Sockets Changes for IPv6

• Added Constants
• Address Data Structures
• in6_addr
• sockaddr_in6
• sockaddr_storage
• Wildcard Addresses
• in6addr_loopback and IN6ADDR_LOOPBACK_INIT
• Core Sockets Functions
• Name-to-Address Translation
• Address-to-Name Translation
• Using getaddrinfo
• Address Sorting
• Address Conversion Functions
• Socket Options
• New Macros

Mobile IPv6

• Overview
• Mobile IPv6 Components
• Mobile IPv6 Transport Layer Transparency
• Mobile IPv6 Messages and Options
• Mobility Header and Messages
• Type 2 Routing Header
• Home Address Option for the Destination Options Header
• ICMPv6 Messages for Mobile IPv6
• Modifications to Neighbor Discovery Messages and Options
• Mobile IPv6 Data Structures
• Binding Cache
• Binding Update List
• Home Agents List
• Correspondent Registration
• Return Routability Procedure
• Detecting Correspondent Nodes That Are Not Mobile IPv6–Capable
• Mobile IPv6 Message Exchanges
• Data Between a Mobile Node and a Correspondent Node
• Binding Maintenance
• Home Agent Discovery
• Mobile Prefix Discovery
• Mobile IPv6 Processes
• Attaching to the Home Link
• Moving from the Home Link to a Foreign Link
• Moving to a New Foreign Link
• Returning Home
• Mobile IPv6 Host Sending Algorithm
• Mobile IPv6 Host Receiving Algorithm

Teredo Protocol Processes

• Initial Configuration for Teredo Clients
• Network Monitor Capture
• Maintaining the NAT Mapping
• Initial Communication Between Teredo Clients on the Same Link
• Initial Communication Between Teredo Clients in Different Sites
• Cone NAT
• Restricted NAT
• Initial Communication from a Teredo Client to a Teredo Host-Specific Relay
• Cone NAT
• Restricted NAT
• Initial Communication from a Teredo Host-Specific Relay to a Teredo Client
• Cone NAT
• Restricted NAT
• Initial Communication from a Teredo Client to an IPv6-Only Host
• Cone NAT
• Restricted NAT
• Initial Communication from an IPv6-Only Host to a Teredo Client
• Cone NAT
• Restricted NAT

Testing for Understanding Answers

• Introduction to IPv6
• IPv6 Protocol for Windows
• IPv6 Addressing
• The IPv6 Header
• ICMPv6
• Neighbor Discovery
• Multicast Listener Discovery and MLD Version 2
• Address Autoconfiguration
• IPv6 and Name Resolution
• IPv6 Routing
• IPv6 Transition Technologies
• 6to4
• Teredo
• NAT64/DNS64
• IPv6 Security Considerations
• DirectAccess
• Deploying IPv6 on an Intranet
• IPv6 on the Microsoft Corporate Network

Multicast Listener Discovery and MLD Version 2

• MLD and MLDv2 Overview
• IPv6 Multicast Overview
• Host Support for Multicast
• Router Support for Multicast
• MLD Packet Structure
• MLD Messages
• Multicast Listener Query
• Multicast Listener Report
• Multicast Listener Done
• Summary of MLD
• MLDv2 Packet Structure
• MLDv2 Messages
• The Modified Multicast Listener Query
• MLDv2 Multicast Listener Report
• Summary of MLDv2
• MLD and MLDv2 Support in Windows
• Testing for Understanding

Address Autoconfiguration

• Address Autoconfiguration Overview
• Types of Autoconfiguration
• Autoconfigured Address States
• Autoconfiguration Process
• DHCPv6
• DHCPv6 Messages
• DHCPv6 Stateful Message Exchange
• DHCPv6 Stateless Message Exchange
• DHCPv6 Support in Windows
• IPv6 Protocol for Windows Autoconfiguration Specifics
• Autoconfigured Addresses for the IPv6 Protocol for Windows
• References
• Testing for Understanding

IPv6 and Name Resolution

• Name Resolution for IPv6
• DNS Enhancements for IPv6
• Source and Destination Address Selection
• Source Address Selection Algorithm
• Destination Address Selection Algorithm
• Fixing IPv6 Brokenness in Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8
• Example of Using Address Selection
• Name Resolution Support in Windows
• Hosts File
• DNS Resolver
• DNS Server Service
• DNS Dynamic Update
• DNS Zone Transfers
• Source and Destination Address Selection
• LLMNR Support
• Support for ipv6-literal.net Names
• Peer Name Resolution Protocol
• Name Resolution Policy Table
• DNS Security Extensions
• Testing for Understanding

IPv6 Routing

• Routing in IPv6
• IPv6 Routing Table Entry Types
• Route Determination Process
• Strong and Weak Host Behaviors
• Example IPv6 Routing Table for Windows
• End-to-End IPv6 Delivery Process
• IPv6 on the Sending Host
• IPv6 on the Router
• IPv6 on the Destination Host
• IPv6 Routing Protocols
• Overview of Dynamic Routing
• Routing Protocol Technologies
• Routing Protocols for IPv6
• Static Routing with the IPv6 Protocol for Windows
• Configuring Static Routing with Windows PowerShell
• Configuring Static Routing with Netsh
• Configuring Static Routing with Routing and Remote Access
• Dead Gateway Detection
• Testing for Understanding

IPv6 Transition Technologies

• Overview
• Node Types
• IPv6 Transition Addresses
• Transition Mechanisms
• Using Both IPv4 and IPv6
• IPv6-over-IPv4 Tunneling
• DNS Infrastructure
• Tunneling Configurations
• Router-to-Router
• Host-to-Router and Router-to-Host
• Host-to-Host
• Types of Tunnels
• Traffic Translation
• NAT64/DNS64
• PortProxy
• Testing for Understanding


• ISATAP Overview
• ISATAP Tunneling
• ISATAP Tunneling Example
• ISATAP Components
• Router Discovery for ISATAP Hosts
• Resolving the Name “ISATAP”
• Using the ISATAP Router Name Group Policy Setting
• Using the Set-NetIsatapConfiguration -Router Windows PowerShell Command
• Using the netsh interface isatap set router Command
• ISATAP Addressing Example
• ISATAP Routing
• ISATAP Communication Examples
• ISATAP Host to ISATAP Host
• ISATAP Host to IPv6 Host
• Configuring an ISATAP Router
• Example Using Windows PowerShell Commands
• Example Using Netsh Commands
• ISATAP in Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8
• Testing for Understanding


• 6to4 Overview
• 6to4 Tunneling
• 6to4 Tunneling Example
• 6to4 Components
• 6to4 Addressing Example
• 6to4 Routing
• 6to4 Support in Windows
• 6to4 Host/Router Support
• 6to4 Router Support
• 6to4 Communication Examples
• 6to4 Host to 6to4 Host/Router
• 6to4 Host to IPv6 Host
• Example of Using ISATAP and 6to4 Together
• Part 1: From ISATAP Host A to 6to4 Router A
• Part 2: From 6to4 Router A to 6to4 Router B
• Part 3: From 6to4 Router B to ISATAP Host B
• Testing for Understanding


• Introduction to Teredo
• Teredo Benefits
• Teredo Support in Microsoft Windows
• Teredo and Protection from Unsolicited Incoming IPv6 Traffic
• Network Address Translators (NATs)
• Teredo Components
• Teredo Client
• Teredo Server
• Teredo Relay
• Teredo Host-Specific Relay
• The Teredo Client and Host-Specific Relay in Windows
• Teredo Addresses
• Teredo Packet Formats
• Teredo Data Packet Format
• Teredo Bubble Packets
• Teredo Indicators
• Teredo Routing
• On-Link Teredo Client Destinations
• Intersite Teredo Client Destinations
• IPv6 Internet Destinations
• Windows-Based Teredo Server and Relay
• Configuring a Teredo Server
• Configuring a Teredo Relay
• Testing for Understanding


• Introduction to IP-HTTPS
• IP-HTTPS Traffic
• IP-HTTPS Components
• Establishing an IP-HTTPS Connection
• IP-HTTPS Client Routing
• Configuring IP-HTTPS Client Settings
• IP-HTTPS Features in Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8
• Testing for Understanding


• Introduction to NAT64/DNS64
• Limitations of NAT64/DNS64
• How NAT64/DNS64 Works
• Configuration Requirements for NAT64/DNS64
• DNS Name Query and Response
• IPv6 Traffic from the IPv6-Only Node
• Configuring NAT64/DNS64 in Windows Server 2012
• Testing for Understanding

IPv6 Security Considerations

• IPv6 Security Considerations
• Authorization for Automatically Assigned Addresses and Configurations
• Recommendations
• Prevention of Rogue IPv6 Routers
• Recommendations
• Protection of IPv6 Packets
• Recommendations
• Host Protection from Scanning and Attacks
• Address Scanning
• Port Scanning
• Recommendations
• Control of Tunneled Traffic on Your Intranet
• Recommendations
• Control of What Traffic Is Exchanged with the Internet
• Recommendations
• Testing for Understanding


• Overview of DirectAccess
• How DirectAccess Uses IPv6
• DirectAccess Client Traffic over the IPv4 Internet
• DirectAccess Client Traffic over the Intranet
• Force Tunneling
• DirectAccess and IPv6 Routing
• DirectAccess and the Role of IPsec
• Encryption
• Data Integrity
• DirectAccess and the Role of the NRPT
• NRPT Exemptions
• Network Location Detection
• Network Location Awareness
• Network Location Detection Process
• How DirectAccess Works
• DirectAccess Client on the Intranet
• DirectAccess Client on the Internet
• Testing for Understanding

Deploying IPv6 on an Intranet

• Introduction
• Planning for IPv6 Deployment
• Platform Support for IPv6
• Application Support for IPv6
• Network Management Infrastructure Support for IPv6
• Unicast IPv6 Addressing Architecture
• Tunnel-Based IPv6 Connectivity
• Other IPv6 Transition Technologies
• Native IPv6 Connectivity
• Name Resolution with DNS
• Native IPv6 Addressing Allocation
• Host-Based Security and IPv6 Traffic
• Controlled or Prioritized Delivery for IPv6 Traffic
• Deploying IPv6
• Obtain Global Address Space
• Set Up an IPv6 Test Network
• Begin Application Migration
• Configure DNS Infrastructure to Support AAAA Records and Dynamic Updates
• Upgrade IPv4-Only Hosts to IPv6/IPv4 Hosts
• Begin Deploying a Native IPv6 Infrastructure
• Connect Portions of Your Intranet over the IPv4 Internet
• Connect Portions of Your Intranet over the IPv6 Internet
• Testing for Understanding

IPv6 on the Microsoft Corporate Network

• Introduction
• Characteristics of the Microsoft Corpnet
• History of IPv6 in Microsoft
• Deployment Philosophy
• Current Deployment of IPv6 on the Microsoft Corpnet
• Short and Long-Term Plans for IPv6 on the Microsoft Corpnet
• Deployment Details
• Addressing Plan and Routing Infrastructure
• DirectAccess
• Security for IPv6 Traffic on the Microsoft Corpnet
• Deployment Planning and Recommendations
• Overall Planning
• Deployment Recommendations
• Testing for Understanding

IPv6 RFC Index 451

• General
• Addressing
• Applications
• Sockets API
• Transport Layer
• Internet Layer
• Network Layer Security
• Link Layer
• Routing
• IPv6 Transition Technologies

Setting Up an IPv6 Test Lab

• IPv6 Test Lab Setup
• Hardware and Software Requirements
• Steps for Configuring the IPv6 Test Lab
• Step 1: Set Up the Base Configuration Test Lab
• Step 2: Configure the Test Lab for the Corpnet2 Subnet
• Step 3: Demonstrate Default IPv6 Connectivity
• Step 4: Demonstrate ISATAP-Based IPv6 Connectivity
• Step 5: Demonstrate Native IPv6 Connectivity
• Step 6: Demonstrate 6to4-Based Connectivity
• Snapshot the Configuration
• Additional IPv6 Test Lab Exercises
• Demonstrate DHCPv6
• Demonstrate DNS Zone Transfers over IPv6
• Demonstrate an IPv6-Only Environment

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