Since the advent of Mobile internet technologies, the users and their demand for the data access with high rate has been growing exponentially. This course explores the evolution of all IP core network named Evolution Packet Core (EPC). EPC is developed by 3GPP under work item System Architecture Evolution (SAE). Various aspects of the EPC which includes its architecture, interworking with other radio access technologies e.g. GSM/ WCDMA or CDMA, major services and functions are included, in a brief manner, are included in this study project.
Due to widespread adoption of mobile communications devices and increasingly
high throughput capacity of cellular networks, Third-Generation (3G) and Long Term
Evolution (LTE) are becoming ever more popular. Millions of smart phones with 3G
capabilities are sold every year and used for mostly browsing the Internet. Hence, mobile
operators have been heavily investing in their packet switched networks to meet customer
demand and stay ahead in the market. The widespread use of broadband mobile Internet
bring along also some IP based threats such as the Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, botnets
and malwares. In this course, we perform DoS and flooding attacks on 3G mobile
networks and measured their effect on the most critical elements of a network such as the
Radio Network Controller (RNC) and the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) devices.
We carried out our experiments on a real mobile network, not just a simulation
environment, and hence our findings depict a realistic picture of the vulnerabilities existent
in 3G mobile networks. We propose alternative solutions to avoid these vulnerabilities and
mitigate the issues raised.
Mobile communication is becoming commonplace
and playing an irreplaceable role in our lives. It
is facilitating not only voice communication but also high speed data communication. Millions of
smart phones with 3G capabilities are sold every year and mostly used for browsing the Internet,
banking applications and messaging, resulting in the expectations for the data revenue of mobile
cellular network operators to exceed their voice revenue.
Especially, with the availability of the
high data throughput in 3G, Long Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced mobile networks,
many subscribers communicate more data than voice. The trend is that data communication, compared
to voice communication, is dominating the mobile market.
It is expected that mobile revenue will
double by 2016, but traffic will increase tenfold due to increasing demand for mobile data
communication . As a result, in mobile cellular networks, data communication revenue is forecasted
to exceed voice communication revenue. Therefore, mobile operators capitalize on their data
services and, in addition to being mobile voice carriers, mobile core networks tend to be used as
Internet Service Providers (ISP).
The investments made by mobile carriers on their IP based infrastructures and services are motivated mostly by their subscribers’ increasing demand for mobile data communication. The acceptance of mobile networks as a venue for Internet access brings along new IP based threats on mobile core networks. Previous studies investigated several vulnerabilities in mobile 3G networks. Some attacks on 3G networks and showed how unwanted traffic results in resource wastage. Also four different attack models specific for cellular networks and evaluated their results for a more robust network design perspective. Investigation attacks on the paging channel and presented their findings through simulations. Valuable contributions to the field by discussing the vulnerabilities on cellular networks in detail and proposing countermeasures. The randomization method to prevent DoS attacks on 3G cellular networks, again using simulations. Several DoS attacks on 3G networks were realized.
A short history of wireless communication
Overall cellular system architecture Background of development of EPC Objectives set by 3GPP for EPC
Data services Voice services Message services
Authentication and security Policy and charging control and QoS Packet routing Mobility management IP address allocation discusses the basic architecture of a 3G network and Section 3 analyzes possible threats in 3G as well as LTE networks attacks exploiting paging vulnerabilities on 3G networks and observed their negativeeffects countermeasures against the security threats mentioned
Frequencies for radio transmission Regulations Signals Antennas Signal propagation Path loss of radio signals Additional signal propagation effects Multi-path propagation Multiplexing Space division multiplexing Frequency division multiplexing Time division multiplexing Code division multiplexing Modulation Amplitude shift keying Frequency shift keying Phase shift keying Advanced frequency shift keying Advanced phase shift keying Multi-carrier modulation Spread spectrum Direct sequence spread spectrum Frequency hopping spread spectrum Cellular systems
Motivation for a specialized MAC Hidden and exposed terminals Near and far terminals SDMA FDMA TDMA Fixed TDM Classical Aloha Slotted Aloha Carrier sense multiple access Demand assigned multiple access PRMA packet reservation multiple access Reservation TDMA Multiple access with collision avoidance Polling Inhibit sense multiple access CDMA Spread Aloha multiple access Comparison of S/T/F/CDMA
GSM Mobile services System architecture Radio interface Protocols Localization and calling Handover Security New data services DECT System architecture Protocol architecture TETRA UMTS and IMT-2000 UMTS releases and standardization UMTS system architecture UMTS radio interface UTRAN Core network Handover
History Applications Basics GEO LEO MEO Routing Localization Handover
Overview Cyclical repetition of data Digital audio broadcasting Multi-media object transfer protocol Digital video broadcasting DVB data broadcasting DVB for high-speed internet access Convergence of broadcasting and mobile communications
Infra red vs radio transmission Infrastructure and ad-hoc network IEEE 802.11 System architecture Protocol architecture Physical layer Medium access control layer MAC management 802.11b 802.11a Newer developments HIPERLAN Historical: HIPERLAN 1 WATM BRAN HiperLAN2 Bluetooth User scenarios Architecture Radio layer Baseband layer Link manager protocol L2CAP Security SDP Profiles IEEE 802.15
Mobile IP 304 Goals, assumptions and requirements Entities and terminology IP packet delivery Agent discovery Registration Tunneling and encapsulation Optimizations Reverse tunneling IPv6 IP micro-mobility support Dynamic host configuration protocol Mobile ad-hoc networks Routing Destination sequence distance vector Dynamic source routing Alternative metrics Overview ad-hoc routing protocols
Traditional TCP Congestion control Slow start Fast retransmit/fast recovery Implications of mobility Classical TCP improvements Indirect TCP Snooping TCP Mobile TCP Fast retransmit/fast recovery Transmission/time-out freezing Selective retransmission Transaction-oriented TCP TCP over 2.5/3G wireless networks Performance enhancing proxies
File systems Consistency Coda Little work Ficus Mlo-NFS Rover World wide web Hypertext transfer protocol Hypertext markup language Some approaches that might help wireless access System architecture Wireless application protocol (version 1.x) Architecture Wireless datagram protocol Wireless transport layer security Wireless transaction protocol Wireless session protocol Wireless application environment Wireless markup language WMLScript Wireless telephony application Push architecture Push/pull services i-mode SyncML WAP 2.0
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