Introduction to Satellite Communication course is designed to meet the needs of working
professionals and engineers. This course in line with industry and technology trends. Whether the attendees are technically trained or not,
the need exists for an authoritative course to the construction and usage of
This course is designed to give an understanding that should permit the engineer to begin work as a satellite professional or as a user of satellite communication. Sufficient technical information has been included to instill a feeling for how systems are designed and operate. Many categories of professionals and engineers should profit from a significant portion of the material. The course explanatory nature and broad coverage make it suitable as a course for an outsourcing training programs and internal training in communication systems design and planning. Nontechnical professionals in associated business management, contracts, legal, and financial fields will find the course particularly helpful when they must deal with telecommunication projects and issues.
The course is completely current, but care has been taken to emphasize concepts that are not likely to change quickly. That is the same approach taken in the first edition, a course that remained in print (and in demand) for 12 years. Once read, this course can be used as a reference because most of the terminology in current usage is defined and illustrated.
The course is organized into 12 different parts to correspond to the major areas of
commercial satellite communication systems. Part 1, ‘‘Fundamentals of Satellite
Systems,’’ identifies the structure and key features of satellite communication and
reviews some of the more basic concepts in a nontechnical style. It is understandable
to all attendees, including high school engineers. Likewise, Part 2, ‘‘Evolution of
Satellite Communication,’’ provides an easy-to-understand history of the technology
and its applications. It begins with geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) systems,
which are the foundation of the industry, and moves into non-GEO systems used
in mobile applications. Another purpose of Part 2 is to capture in one place
the background with which many newcomers otherwise would not be acquainted.
Part 3, ‘‘Satellite Network Architectures,’’ covers the ways in which satellite
links can be applied to practical communication problems. It gives the attendees an
appreciation for the variety of uses in which satellites have gained a stronghold.
Technologists involved with spacecraft or communication systems will find that
Part 3 explains many of the mysteries surrounding the business of using
The next two Parts begin the core technical material, focusing on the engineering and design of radio transmissions to and from satellites. Part 4, ‘‘Microwave Link Engineering,’’ gives the attendees a basic understanding of the physics of the radio link between the Earth station and the satellite and covers the factors that are under the designer’s control as well as those that are not. It is assumed that the attendees has little or no technical training, so the only form of mathematics used is arithmetic. Part 5, ‘‘Modulation, Multiple Access and Impairments,’’ rounds out the basic theory of communication as it relates to efficient satellite transmission. The Part is fairly compact and may be helpful for interested attendees to supplement their study with a basic course on communication engineering. Nontechnical attendees can examine Part 4 and 5 but not delve deeply into the engineering details (which are more important to technical professionals, who need to understand features and trade-offs).
Part 6, 7, and 8 provide a comprehensive review of the functional elements of all communication satellites. The objective here is to aid attendees in understanding the key issues in satellites and is not appropriate for the detailed engineering design of satellite components and subsystems. As is customary, the physical piece of hardware is referred to as the spacecraft, which becomes an artificial Earth satellite (or just satellite) when in orbit. The major elements of the spacecraft are the repeater (bent-pipe and digital processor), the antennas, and the spacecraft bus (the supporting vehicle), which are covered in Part 6, 7, and 8, respectively. While those Part are not essential to understanding how to use satellite communications, they will be of general benefit because the actual operation of a spacecraft affects the performance of the services rendered.
The complementary topics for the ground facilities used in conjunction with the satellite are reviewed in Part 9, ‘‘Earth Stations and Terrestrial Technology.’’ Care has been taken to include only current classes of Earth stations, particularly those used for satellite control, television broadcasting, fixed and mobile very small aperture terminal (VSAT) applications, and mobile satellite services (GEO and non-GEO). Part 9 will be useful for those attendees who plan to use satellite transmission, since ground facilities fundamentally are under the control of the user rather than the satellite operator.
Part 10, ‘‘Launch Vehicles and Services,’’ covers topics that are of great concern to operators and major users of satellites alike. The Part is a complete review of the alternatives for placing satellites into Earth orbit and emphasizes that particular launch vehicle choices change over time. However, because reliability is based on a consistent experience record, much of the change is evolutionary rather than revolutionary. Part 10 also discusses the planning and operation of the mission, which is the sequence of events of launch and placement into operating orbit. Risk management is addressed as well.
Part 11, ‘‘Satellite Operations and Organization,’’ addresses the special needs of this type of business. In some detail, it reviews the complete satellite control system, the communication network needed to support such a system, and the human resources that are appropriate to those functions. Part 12, ‘‘Economics of Satellite Systems,’’ provides the underlying characteristics of satellites and Earth stations that are related to the cost of implementing and operating satellite networks. Our perspective is that of a commercial operator who is in business to make money (or reduce costs). The framework is useful for analyzing the economics of either a complete system or a portion of a system (e.g., one or a few Earth stations). Part 12 is expanded to address the overall systems engineering process in satellite communication. This is based on the structured approach found in the aerospace industry adapted to the needs of commercial applications. From this, we move into the topic of engineering economics and overall development of the entire satellite program.
· Basic Characteristics of Satellites · Advantages of Satellite Communication · Use of Microwave Frequencies · Digital Transmission, Compression, and Routing · Improved Space Platforms and Launching Systems · Integration with Terrestrial Wired and Wireless Networks · System Elements · Space Segment · Ground Segment · Overall System · Satellite Orbit Configurations · Frequency Spectrum Allocations · ITU Spectrum Allocations and Regions · VHF and UHF Frequency Ranges · Microwave Bands: L and S · Microwave Bands: C, X, and Ku · Millimeter Wave and Higher: Ka-, Q-, and V-Bands · Guided and Unguided Optical Properties
· Source of the Original Idea · SYNCOM · COMSAT · Evolving Satellite Coverage · Global Service: INTELSAT, PanAmSat, and Orion · Regional Coverage: EUTELSAT and SES · Domestic Systems: Telesat, Westar, and Palapa · Specialized Systems: DTH and Mobile · DTH Development · MSS Development · Digital Information Broadcasting · Expansion at Higher Frequency Bands: Ka-Band
· General Features of Satellite Networks · Dedicated Bandwidth Services · Circuit-Switched Services · Packet-Switched Services · Flexibility Features · Reliability of Satellites and Links · Quality Features and Issues · Point-to-Multipoint (Broadcast) Networks · Video Distribution · Direct-to-Home Television · Content Distribution Networks · Mobile Satellite Communications · Point-to-Point Networks · VSAT Networks
· The Decibel · Propagation on the Earth-Space Link · Basic Microwave Propagation · Isotropic Radiator · Directional Properties of Antennas · Polarization (Linear and Circular) · Propagation Losses · Microwave Transmitters and Receivers · Transmitting Station · Receiving Station · Definition of a Transponder · Overall Link Quality · How Noise and Interference Affect a Microwave Link · Carrier-to-Noise Ratio · Link Budget Analysis · Link Margin
· Digital Baseband Signals and Hierarchies · Digital Information Sources and Bandwidth Requirements · Analog-to-Digital Conversion · Compression · Error Detection and Correction · Scrambling and Encryption · Digital Modulation · Frequency Shift Keying · Phase Shift Keying · Amplitude and Phase Shift Keying · Multiple Access Methods · Frequency Division Multiple Access · Time Division Multiple Access · ALOHA Packet Multiple Access · Code Division Multiple Access · RF Bandwidth Utilization in Multiple Access · Distortion and Impairments · Digital Signal Impairments · Transponder Intermodulation Impairment · Uplink and Downlink RF Interference
· Overview of Communications Spacecraft · Overall Payload Requirements · Transmit Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) · Receive Gain-to-Noise Temperature Ratio (G/T) · Bent-Pipe Transponder Filtering · Linearity · Frequency Translation Effects · Analog Bent-Pipe Repeaters · Digital Processing Repeaters · Multiple Beam Switching and Routing · Digital Processor Architecture · Demod-Remod Repeater · Standard Repeater Elements · Wideband Receiver · Redundancy Switching · Waveguide Filters and Multiplexers · Traveling Wave Tube Amplifiers · Solid-State Power Amplifiers · Transponder Gain Control and Linearization · Spacecraft Antennas · Horn Antennas · Reflector Antennas · Center-Fed Parabolic Reflectors · Offset-Fed Parabolic Reflectors · Antenna Patterns · Direct Radiating Array Antennas
· Mission Summary · GEO Mission Profile · On-Station Operation Requirements · Non-GEO Requirements · Spacecraft Configuration · Spacecraft Bus Subsystems · Attitude-Control Subsystem · Solar Cells and Panels · Battery Design and Configuration · Liquid Propulsion System · Electric and Ion Propulsion · Solid-Fuel Rocket Motors · Tracking, Telemetry, and Command (TT&C) · Thermal Control · Structural Arrangements
· Basic Earth Station Configuration · Performance Requirements · Transmit EIRP · Receive G/T · Location and Platform Requirements · Radio Frequency Equipment · Antennas for Earth Stations · Antenna Beam Pointing · High-Power Amplifiers · Upconverters and Downconverters · RF Combining · Uplink Power Control · Intermediate Frequency and Baseband Equipment · Modulators, Demodulators, and Modems · Multiplexing and Packet Processing · Tail Links and Terrestrial Interface · Terrestrial Tail Options · Terrestrial Network Interfaces · Earth Station Facility Design · Major Classes of Earth Stations · TT&C Ground Facilities · TV Uplinks and Broadcast Centers · FDMA Digital Communications Service · Full-Mesh TDMA Earth Station · VSAT Star Network Terminal · TV Receive-Only Design · MSS User Terminals
· The Launch Mission · The Boost Phase · Non-GEO Missions · Geostationary Transfer Orbit · Drift Orbit for GEO Operation · Deployments and In-Orbit Testing · RCS Fuel Allocation · Launch Technology and Systems · Typical Launch Vehicles · Ariane · Atlas · Delta · H-1 and H-2 · Long March · Proton · Zenit · Launch Interfaces · Physical Launch Interfaces · Management Interfaces · Risk Management in Launch and Operation · Launch Insurance · Backup and Replacement Satellites · Satellite Operations and Organization · The Satellite Control System · GEO Satellite Control · Non-GEO Satellite Control · Intercommunication Networks · Backbone Communications · Alternate Routing for High Reliability · Network Management · Network Operations · Standard GEO Transponder Services · User Network Monitor and Control · Payload Configuration Management · Human Resources for Satellite Operations
· Satellite Systems Engineering Principles · Fixed Satellite Systems and Services · Mobile Satellite Systems and Services · Satellite System Economic Principles · System Development Methodology · Space Segment Economics · Space Segment Investment Cost Elements · Annual Space Segment Costs · Earth Station Economics · Earth Station Investment Cost Elements · Annual Costs for Earth Station Networks · Teleport Earth Stations · Analysis of Network Economics · Determining Traffic Requirements · Laying Out the Network · Total Network Evaluation · Optimizing the Space and Ground Segments · Satellite Communications: Instant Infrastructure · Satellites Versus Fiber Optics · Emphasis on the Broadcast Feature · Paralleling the Terrestrial Networks · Mobility Enhancements · Creating the Future · Advancing Technology · Conclusions for the Next Generation
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